1. Big bang theory
According to the ‘Big Bang’, the whole universe was initially one big mass (Primary Nebula). Then there was a ‘Big Bang’ (Secondary Separation) which resulted in the formation of Galaxies. These then divided to form stars, planets, the sun, the moon, etc. The origin of the universe was unique and the probability of it occurring by ‘chance’ is zero (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Bang). The Qur’aan contains the following verse, regarding the origin of the universe: “Do not the Unbelievers see That the heavens and the earth Were joined together (as one Unit of Creation), before We clove them asunder?” [Al-Qur’aan 21:30]
2. Creation of Galaxies
Scientists say that before the galaxies in the universe were formed, celestial matter was initially in the form of gaseous matter. In short, huge gaseous matter or clouds were present before the formation of the galaxies. To describe initial celestial matter, the word ‘smoke’ is more appropriate than gas. The early universe was incredible – a dense primordial soup of elementary particles, colliding repeatedly at tremendous energies – a brilliant fireworks display. Indeed, the present universe with all its beauty and complexity is merely the wisp of smoke remaining after the fireworks show (A brief history of the universe: http://cerncourier.com/cws/article/cern/28187). The following Qur’aanic verse refers to this state of the universe by the word dhukhan which means smoke.
“Moreover, He Comprehended In His design the sky, And it had been (as) smoke: He said to it And to the earth: ‘Come ye together, Willingly or unwillingly.’ They said: ‘We do come (Together), in willing obedience.’” [Al-Qur’aan 41:11]
A new star forming out of a cloud of gas and dust (nebula), which is one of the remnants of the “smoke“ that was the origin of the whole universe. Only Islam claims that the universe was originated from Dust and Hot Gas, or Smoke.
3. The spherical shape of the earth
Sir Francis Drake was the first person who proved that the earth is spherical when he sailed around it in 1597, while today scientists say that the earth has an ellipsoidal shape. The wikipedia mention it as : “Closer approximations range from modelling the shape of the entire Earth as an oblate spheroid or an oblate ellipsoid to the use of spherical harmonics or local approximations in terms of local reference ellipsoids (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Figure_of_the_Earth). Further, the wikipedia defines oblate ellipsoid as a rotattionally symmetric ellipsoid, having a polar axis shorter than the diameter of the equatorial circle whose plane bisects it. An oblate spheroid can be formed by rotating an ellips about its minor axis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oblate_spheroid)
Merging here means that the night slowly and gradually changes to day and vice versa. This phenomenon can only take place if the earth is spherical. If the earth was flat, there would have been a sudden change from night to day and from day to night.
The following verse also alludes to the spherical shape of the earth: “He created the heavens And the earth In true (proportions): He makes the Night Overlap the Day, and the Day Overlap the Night.” [Al-Qur’aan 39:5]
The Arabic word used here is Kawwara meaning ‘to overlap’ or ‘to coil’– the way a turban is wound around the head. The overlapping or coiling of the day and night can only take place if the earth is spherical. Well, not too spherical of course, such has been discussed above, its an oblate spheroid shaped. The earth is not exactly round like a ball, but geo-spherical i.e. it is flattened at the poles. The following verse contains a description of the earth’s shape: “And the earth, moreover, Hath He made egg shaped. (dahaha)” [Al-Qur’aan 79:30]
The Arabic word for egg here is dahaha, which means an ostrich-egg. The shape of an ostrich-egg resembles the geo-spherical shape of the earth. Thus the Qur’aan correctly describes the shape of the earth, though the prevalent notion when the Qur’aan was revealed was that the earth is flat.
In 1512, Nicholas Copernicus put forward his Heliocentric Theory of Planetary Motion, which asserted that the sun is motionless at the centre of the solar system with the planets revolving around it.
In 1609, the German scientist Yohannus Keppler published the ‘Astronomia Nova’. In this he concluded that not only do the planets move in elliptical orbits around the sun, they also rotate upon their axes at irregular speeds. With this knowledge it became possible for European scientists to explain correctly many of the mechanisms of the solar system including the sequence of night and day.
Consider the following Qur’aanic verse: “It is He Who created The Night and the Day, And the sun and the moon: All (the celestial bodies) Swim along, each in its Rounded course.” [Al-Qur’aan 21:33]
The Arabic word used in the above verse is yasbahûn . The word yasbahûn is derived from the word sabaha. It carries with it the idea of motion that comes from any moving body. If you use the word for a man on the ground, it would not mean that he is rolling but would mean he is walking or running. If you use the word for a man in water it would not mean that he is floating but would mean that he is swimming.
Similarly, if you use the word yasbah for a celestial body such as the sun it would not mean that it is only flying through space but would mean that it is also rotating as it goes through space. Most of the school textbooks have incorporated the fact that the sun rotates about its axis.
The sun has spots which complete a circular motion once every 25 days i.e. the sun takes approximately 25 days to rotate around its axis.
5. Mountains are like Pegs (Stakes)
A book named ‘Earth’ is considered as a basic reference textbook on geology in many universities around the world. One of the authors of this book is Frank Press, who was the President of the Academy of Sciences in the USA for 12 years and was the Science Advisor to former US President Jimmy Carter. In this book he illustrates the mountain in a wedge-shape and the mountain itself as a small part of the whole, whose root is deeply entrenched in the ground. According to Dr. Press, the mountains play an important role in stabilizing the crust of the earth. (Earth, Press and Siever, p. 435. Also see Earth Science, Tarbuck and Lutgens, p. 157.)
The Qur’aan contains exactly such a description in the following verse: “Have We not made The earth as a wide Expanse, And the mountains as pegs?” [Al-Qur’aan 78:6-7]
“And We have set on the earth Mountains standing firm, Lest it should shake with them.” [Al-Qur’aan 21:31]
Isostacy: mountain masses deflect a pendulum away from the vertical, but not as much as might be expected. In the diagram, the vertical position is shown by (a); if the mountain were simply a load resting on a uniform crust, it ought to be deflected to (c). However because it has a deep of relatively non-dense rocks, the observed deflection is only to (b). Picture courtesy of Building Planet Earth, Cattermole pg. 35
6. Barrier between two bodies of flowing Water
Consider the following Qur’aanic verses: “He has let free the two bodies Of flowing water, Meeting together: Between them is a Barrier Which they do not transgress.” [Al-Qur’aan 55:19-20]
In the Arabic text the word barzakh means a barrier or a partition. This barrier is not a physical partition. The Arabic word maraja literally means ‘they both meet and mix with each other’. Early commentators of the Qur’aan were unable to explain the two opposite meanings for the two bodies of water, i.e. they meet and mix, and at the same time, there is a barrier between them. Modern Science has discovered that in the places where two different seas meet, there is a barrier between them. This barrier divides the two seas so that each sea has its own temperature, salinity and density (Principles of Oceanography, Davis, pp. 92-93 )
There are large waves,strong currents, and tides in the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Mediterranean Sea enters the Atlantic by Gibraltar. But their temperature, salinity, and densities do not change, because of the barrier that separates them
7. Forbidden barrier between fresh and salty water
Modern science has discovered that in estuaries, where fresh (sweet) and saltwater meet, the situation is somewhat different from that found in places where two seas meet. It has been discovered that what distinguishes fresh water from salt water in estuaries is a “pycnocline zone with a marked density discontinuity separating the two layers.” This partition (zone of separation) has salinity different from both the fresh water and the salt water. (Oceanography, Gross, p. 242. and 244 Also see Introductory Oceanography, Thurman, pp. 300-301 )
The Qur’aan speaks about the divider between fresh and salt water, it mentions the existence of “a forbidding partition” with the barrier. “It is He Who has Let free the two bodies Of flowing water: One palatable and sweet, And the other salty and bitter; Yet has He Made a barrier between them, And a partition that is forbidden To be passed.” [Al-Qur’aan 25:53]
The phenomena cited by Quran is captured by a professional diver Anatoly Beloshchin in the cave Cenote Angelita, Mexico. Heres his description: We are 30 meters deep, fresh water, then 60 meters deep salty water and under me I see a river, island and fallen leaves Actually, the river, which you can see, is a layer of hydrogen sulphide. It must be an unforgettable feeling once youre there and see it with your own eyes.
River under the sea in the cave Cenote Angelita, Mexico, where pure water flowing surrounded by salt (sea) water on the deep of Mexican Gulf. The pure water does not mixed with salt water
8. Darkness in the depth of the ocean
Prof. Durga Rao is an expert in the field of Marine Geology and was a professor at King Abdul Aziz University in Jeddah. He was asked to comment on the following verse: “Or (the Unbelievers’ state) Is like the depths of darkness In a vast deep ocean, Overwhelmed with billow Topped by billow, Topped by (dark) clouds: Depths of darkness, one Above another: if a man Stretches out his hand, He can hardly see it! For any to whom Allah Giveth not light, there is no light!” [Al-Qur’aan 24:40]
Prof. Rao said that scientists have only now been able to confirm, with the help of modern equipment that there is darkness in the depths of the ocean. Humans are unable to dive unaided underwater for more than 20 to 30 meters, and cannot survive in the deep oceanic regions at a depth of more than 200 meters. This verse does not refer to all seas because not every sea can be described as having accumulated darkness layered one over another. It refers especially to a deep sea or deep ocean, as the Qur’aan says, “darkness in a vast deep ocean overwhelmed with waves topped by waves”.
In other words, above these waves there are more types of waves, i.e. those found on the surface of the ocean. The Qur’aanic verse continues, “topped by (dark) clouds; depths of darkness, one above another.” These clouds as explained are barriers one over the other that further cause darkness by absorption of colours at different levels.
Prof. Durga Rao concluded by saying, “1400 years ago a normal human being could not explain this phenomenon in so much detail. Thus the information must have come from a supernatural source”.
One of the creatures on the darkness of the deep sea
9. Every Living things is made from water
Do you now know that modern science reveal that cytoplasm, the basic substance of the cell is made up of 80% water? Modern research has also revealed that most organisms consist of 50% to 90% water and that every living entity requires water for its existence. The Wikipedia, cited The Franklin Institute Inc “Blood the human heart” Retrieved 19 March 2009, say that plasma, which constitutes 55% of blood fluid, is mostly water (90% by volume): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood
Qur’aan has already told what the science revealed by: “Do not the Unbelievers see thatthe heavens and the earth were joined together (as one Unit of Creation), before We clove them asunder? We made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?” [Al-Qur’aan 21:30]
10. Human is Created from Alaq
Prof. (Dr.) Keith Moore, who was the Professor of Embryology and Chairman of the Department of Anatomy at the University of Toronto, in Canada was asked to give his opinion regarding the information present in the Qur’aan concerning the field of embryology. After carefully examining the translation of the Qur’aanic verses presented to him, Dr. Moore said that most of the information concerning embryology mentioned in the Qur’aan is in perfect conformity with modern discoveries in the field of embryology and does not conflict with them in any way.
On the verse : “Proclaim! (or Read!) In the name Of thy Lord and Cherisher, Who created – Created man, out of A (mere) clot Of congealed blood (something that clings, a leech-like substance.)” [Al-Qur’aan 96:1-2] DR. Keith said that he had no knowledge whether an embryo in the initial stages appears like a leech. To check this out he studied the initial stage of the embryo under a very powerful microscope in his laboratory and compared what he observed with a diagram of a leech and he was astonished at the striking resemblance between the two!