Does The Prophet Muhammad saw is a Paedophyl?

It has been a slandered in orientalist that belong to prophet Muhammad’s haters that The Prophet is a “paedophyl” for marrying Aisya in her 9 years of age.

Did Aisya married when she was at 9? To understand, one should know the milestone of Islamic History as follows:

  • pre-610 M: Jahiliya (pre-Islamic era) before the revelation was sent
  • 610 M: First revelation, AbuBakr become a moslem
  • 613 M: Prophet Muhammad begun to tell his society about Islam
  • 615 M: Hijra (went) to Abyssinia.
  • 616 M: Umar bin al Khattab become a moslem.
  • 620 M: The prophet proposed Aisya
  • 622 M: Hijrah to Yathrib (Medina)
  • 623/624 M: The prophet married to Aisya

EVIDENCE#1: THE PROPOSAL

According toTabari (also according to Hisham ibn `Urwah, Ibn Hunbal and Ibn Sad), Aisya was proposed when she was in her 7 and married at 9 (two years after). But in another notation, Tabari said that : ” All Abu Bakr’s children (there are 4 children including Aisya) was born on the era Jahiliya (pre islamic era) from his two wifes “(Tarikhu’l-umam wa’l-mamlu’k, Al-Tabari (died 922), Vol. 4,p. 50, Arabic, Dara’l-fikr, Beirut, 1979)”.

Aisya was propsed in 620M (she was told at 7 on that day), this means that she was born at 613M. This is already in the islamic era, not in Jahiliya. Had another Tabari’s note was right, Aisya was in her 13 when she was married (9 + [613 – 609]).

CONCLUTION: Aisya was not married when she was 9 but should be older than that.

EVIDENCE#2: Aisya’s age related toFatima’s age

According to Ibn Hajar,Fatimawas born when Ka’aba was rebuilt, when the prophet Muhammad was in his 35.Fatimais 5 years older than Aisya (Al-isabah fi tamyizi’l-sahabah, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, Vol. 4, p. 377, Maktabatu’l-Riyadh al-haditha, al-Riyadh, 1978).

Had Ibnu Hajar’s statement is a fact, Aisya was born when Nabi saw in his 40 (35+5). Aisya is said being proposed when the prophet is in his 52. This means that Aisya’s age at that time was 12 years (52-40) and was married 2 years after which is when she was in her 14.

CONCLUTION: The story of Aisya’s marriage at her 9 is a myth, does not have its root in history.

EVIDENCE#3: Aisya’s age  related to her sister,  Asma

According to Abda’l-Rahman ibn abi zanna’d: Asma is 10 years older than Aisya (Siyar A`la’ma’l-nubala’, Al-Zahabi, Vol. 2, p. 289, Arabic, Mu’assasatu’l-risalah,Beirut, 1992). According to Ibn Kathir: Asma is 10 years older than her sister, Aisya (Al-Bidayah wa’l-nihayah, Ibn Kathir, Vol. 8, p. 371,Dar al-fikr al-`arabi, > Al-jizah, 1933).

According to Ibn Kathir: Asma was seeing the murder of his son in 73H, and she was dead 10 or 20 days after. She was in her 100 years when died (Al-Bidayah wa’l-nihayah, Ibn Kathir, Vol. 8, p. 372, Dar al-fikr al-`arabi, Al-jizah, 1933). This is confirm to what Ibn Hajar said (Taqribu’l-tehzib, Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani,p. 654, Arabic, Bab fi’l-nisa’, al-harfu’l-alif,Lucknow).

Had Asma died in her 100 years of age at 73H, this means that Asma was in her 27 or 28 of age (100-73)  at the event of Hijra (622M). Then arithmatically, Asma was born on 595M (622-27) and Aisya was born on 605M (595 + 10)

Thus when Aisya was proposed in 620M, she was at her 15 years of age (620 – 605) and was married at 17 (15 + 2).

CONCLUTION: Again, Aisya was not married when she was 9.

EVIDENCE#4: Sura al-Qamar (The Moon)

According to a source narated in Bukhariy, Aisya said: ” I was a young girl (jariyya in Arabic term) when Sura Al-Qamar was revelated” (Sahih Bukhari, kitabu’l-tafsir, Bab Qaulihi Bal al-sa`atu Maw`iduhum wa’l-sa`atu adha’ wa amarr).

The 54th sura of the Holly Quran was revelated eight years before Hijra (The Bounteous Koran, M.M. Khatib, 1985) or on 614M. If the story of Aisya’s married at 9 is correct, this means that Aisya was born on 615M (624 – 9), thus she was a baby (sibyah in Arabic term), not a young girl (jariyya) when sura Al-Qamar was revelated. (Jariyya means young girl that still love to play – Lane’s Arabic English Lexicon), which logically between 6 – 10 ten years of age. Thus when she was married on 624M she should be in her 15 – 19 years of age.

CONCLUTION: Aisya was not married when she was 9.

It is proven then that The Prophet Muhammad saw was marrying Aisya when she was a virgin in her 14 – 19 years of age, not in her 9 years of age. Thus the slander that addressed toward the Prophet that He is a Paedophyl is a not true based on the history.

Posted in General, History

Neighborhood Etiquette in Islam

Neighbors in our era, have no small influence on the neighbor next door. Because we live closely each others, in homes, flats, condominiums or apartments..

To make a good neighborhood Islam teach you that your neighbour has the right to be treated well.  When every moslem commit to the rule of Islam in neighborhood then he will live in a healthy community. Here is what Islam teach us how to treat neighbors:

  1.  Your neighbor has so great right to you, as if he is your brother in blood (hadith 1)
  2. Therefore, Islam prohibits you to disturb your neighbors inculding that you do bad things (hadith 2)
  3. Your neighbors even has the right to be treated well by giving them gifts (hadith 4)
  4. Your neighbors has the right to be visitted when he is sick (hadith 7)
  5. Including the right of your neighbor is asking your permission to disturbing you with his business (hadith 6)
  6. Neighbors have the right to be offered in the first place to buy your house (hadith 3)
  7. It suffice to say that you’ve make a great sin by commit an adultery with your neighbor’s wife (hadith 5)

 LIST OF HADEETHS

  1.  from [Aisha] said: Messenger of shallallahu’alaihi wa sallam said: “Gabriel is always remind me about neighbors, so I thought a neighbor also inherit.” (Ahmad: 24 363)
  2. From [Abu Hurairah], he said: That the Prophet sallallaahu’ alaihi wasallam said:” No, for the sake of God he is not faithful, not, for the sake of God he is not faithful, not, for the sake of God he is not faithful, “then the friends of the prophet asked,” Who is he, O Messenger of Allah? ” He replied: “A neighbor, which his neighbor do not feel safe from disturbance,” They asked further, “What is his disturbance?” He said: “his badness.” (Ahmad: 8078)
  3. From [Ash Syarid bin Suwaid], that the prophet said: “The neighbors were more entitled to offer in the first place  to buy the land than other parties.” (Ahmad: 18 658) and Tirmidhi (1291) narrated  with  better chain of narrator
  4. From [Abu Hurairah], that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Salam said: “O Muslim,  do not up ever underestimate to do good for their neighbor, even by giving the leg of lamb. ” (Ahmad: 9999)
  5. From [Abdullah] he said,” I asked the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam,’What is the greater Sin ?’ He replied: “You make a rival to Allah while He Who has created you, and commit adultery with neighbor’s wife and child murdered for fear that she come to eat with you.” Or “Eat your food.” (Ahmad: 4191)
  6. From [Abu Hurairah] from the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam, he said: “Whoever asked for permission by his neighbors to put the wood on his walls, then he must not forbid it.” (Ahmad: 9582)
  7. From [Al Barra ‘] radliallahu’ anhu he said: “The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam ordered seven cases of them visit the sick.” (Bukhariy: 5401)
Posted in Etiquette (Akhlaq) | Tagged | 1 Comment

The sources of Islamic Law

From [Abu Salamah]: “The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam when asked what would happen but not in the book (Al-Qur `an) and Sunnah (what the prophet said/behave), he answered:” ‘(should) worship experts from the mu `minin discussed the issue’ (ijma of ulama)” [Darimiy:117]

This narrated hadeeth is telling us how as moslem we understand our canon law. First of all we shoud see to the book (al-quran). It contain what are orderred and prohibited by Allah. For example, Allah prohibit us not to eat only 4 items: carrion,blood,the flesh of swine, and that are slaughtered as a sacrificed for other than Allah (for example for idols etc) [al-baqara 2:173]. This mean that no other parties with no exception included the prophet may augment such prohibitation.

Sometimes what are stated in the book (al-quran) need to be explained further as it contain only legal principles. In this case the hadeeth is needed to explain such principles.  For example, Allah required the moslems to pay zakat as stated in al-baqara 2:43. But how to pay zakat, what kind of zakat to be paid, how much should be paid are not explained by the verses of the quran. The hadeeth do explain such details. Many hadeeths explained the kind  of zakat should be paid, for example what is narrated by Malik told us that basically there are 3 types of subjet of zakat: agriculture product, what are breed in the ranch and those of financial assets:

From [Abu Sa’eed al Khudri], that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam said: “Dates that  are lessthan five wasaq, no zakat. The money that is less than five uqiyah no zakat. And camels that are less than five male no zakat. [Malik:514]

Some times al-quran does not mention anything about something but hadeeth mention it. For example the law of abortion in Islam. The book (al-quran) does mention about murder. But it does not mention about abortion. Hadeeth say that abortion, whenever medically necessary, is allowed as long as the pregnancy has not reached 120 days (Muslim:4781). Those who are interested in this matters should refers to the article of “abortion in the view of Islam” in this blog.

Almost all of the Islamic Law has been covered by al-quran and hadeeth. Only a few that should be judge by the worship experts (ulama) but basically they formulate their opinion by using hadeeth also. For example, does contraception allowed in Islam? No verses in the quran mention it. The hadeeth that relate directly to this matter is that the prophet allowed to do azl (coitus interuptus). Apparently contraception using condom is similar to this problem, thus Islam does allow on it. But what about installing a copper T to a woman cervix? No hadeeth directly mention about it. The ulama, bases by some hadeeths does say that it is not allowed for a woman to install copper T to her cervix. Those who interested to know about this should refer to the article of “Contraception in Islam: Is it allowed?” in this blog.

Al-Quran

It is believed that alquran is revelation from Allah that descended to the prophets. The chances that it is not may come from 2 sources:

  1. The quran was wrote by the prophet himself and told that it is revealed from Allah
  2. The Quran was true revealed from Allah but has been changed along the time by the ulama

but those two possibilities are not likely to occur. First, if it was wrote by the prophet himself how can the various scientific confirmation contained in the Quran, which when viewed from the time it is wrote, it is highly unlikely that such knowledge is already known in those days (please refer to the article of “Some scientific Discoveries of the Holly Quran” in this blog).  Second, it is also not possible that the quran amended from time to time, since various edition of the quran in all over the world, from time to time has the same in all the verses and the verses is exactly the same with the verses when it is revealed as confirmed by the manuscript from the early Islamic period. The Quran also memorized from time to time exactly to the letters by many hufaz (peoples who memorize it).  Editorial changes to the quran will soon be known by the Hufaz, even if that changed only one letter though.

Hadeeth

Hadeeth is what the prophet said, done and his silence in something as narrated from time to time by many peoples in a chain of narrator and finally be written by the authors of hadeeth. A hadeeth that has came to us and survived from the falsification or error, definitely is what the Prophet said, done or his silence on something. This is said a “hadeeth shahih” (a valid hadeeth). Those that do not survived from falsification and error is said a weak hadeeth (hadeeth dhaif). Only Hadeeth shahih are accepted as the sources of Islamic Law. Those that had written by Bukhariy and Muslim are considered shahih. Those that written by Ahmad, Abu Dawood, Nasa’i, Ibnu Majah, Tirmithi Malik and Darimiy mostly are considerred to be shahih and some are dhaif (weak hadeeth).

The chance that a hadeeth is weak or false, derived from the chain of narrator (sanad) who told the hadeeth. If one of the person in the chain of the persons who narrated a hadeeth is weak in its memory then the hadeeth is called a weak hadeeth (hadeeth dhaif). When that person is a liar then the hadeeth is told a mawdhu hadeeth (a false hadeeth). For example:

From [Abu Hurairah], he said; Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam said: “O Abu Hurayra, learn faraidl and teach it, for that he is half of the science, and science that will be forgotten and it is the first one that is deprived of my Ummah.” (Ibn Maaja:2710).

The hadeeth was narrated from   [Ibrahim bin Mundzir Al Hizami] from [Hafsh bin ‘Umar bin Abu Al ‘Ithaf]   from  [Abu Az Zinad] from [Al A’raj] from [Abu Hurairah] from the prophet.

It is said that  Ibrahim ibn Mundzir, Abu Az-Zinad, Al-A’raj and Abi Huraira are able to be trusted. But Hafsh bin Umar bin Abi Al ‘Aththaf is considerred a weak person. His hadeeth are being rejected by the hadeeth writer. Thus this hadeeth can not be considered validly derived from the prophet.

The hadeeth experts knows the state all the carrier of the hadeeth, whether they can be trusted or not,  from the books that record their names.

The hadeeth that narrated from untrustworthy peoples could not be used as the source of Islamic Law.

Another type of hadeeth that  is considered as weak hadeeth is the hadeeth in which there is a broken in its chain of narrator, such that can not be verified who that person is, his name, his trustworthiness,etc. Example of this type is hadeeth that is narrated in Darimiy:341 as follows:

[Abdullah ibn Mas `ud] said:” Be ye in the morning an alim (science teacher) or educated (hunting science), and there is no goodness in addition to both “. 

The hadeeth was narrated from [Mu’alla bin Asad] from [Salam ibn Abi Muthi’ Sa’ad] from [Nashr ibn Ziyad ibn ‘abbad] from [Adl Dlahhaak ibn Muzahim] from [Abdullah ibn Mas’ud]. Adl Dlahhaak was died on 105 H while Abdullah ibn Mas’ud died on 32H thus there is no chance that Adl Dlahhaak hear directly from Ibn Mas’ud. There is a narrator that is not mentioned on the hadeeth, that can be confirmed his trustworthiness.

Posted in Fiqh, Fiqh Aam | Tagged , ,

War Principles in Islam (2)

  1. War is a trick (trick), so it is recommended not to tell the troops  the dropping zone [hadeeth No. 4 and No. 2]
  2. Not attacking areas where the sound of adzan is echoed when prayer times enter [Hadeeth No. 3]
  3. Charge only when enemy troops refused to surrender by paying protection tax (jizya) [Hadith No. 1]
  4. The Moslem army should be willing to fight for Allah only (Hadith no 20)
  5. Obliged to obey the leaders and are prohibited from making damage [Hadith No. 17]
  6. Recommended to divide the army into detachments and companies (Hadith no 18)
  7. The obligatory prayers is still mandatory  in a state of war and the prayer was just 1 rak [Hadeeth No. 9, 10 and 11] and may be done by facing the enemy while praying [Hadith No. 12]
  8. It being allowed to bring  women in war as part of a medical team, not as an army [hadith number 16]
  9.  It is forbidden to kill women and children in warfare [hadith no 5] except those who participates in the war [Hadith no 21], also prohibited from killing the workers who did not participate in warfare [Hadith no 21] and also not killing those who inhabit the places of worship [hadith no 22]
  10. It is forbidden to retreat / escape from battles,to steal, and chopping the enemy that have been killed into pieces [Hadeeth No. 6, 7 and 8]
  11. The martyr does not need to be bathed but immediately buried simply [hadith number 13]
  12. Forbidden to hang the mascot on the vehicle of war [Hadith No. 14]
  13. It is allowable to perform the exchange of prisoners [Hadith No. 15]
  14. It is forbidden to  blocade the refugee camp (Hadith no 19)

LIST OF HADEETH 

  1. From [Abdurrahman ibn Awf] said: When Zoroastrian rebel from the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam, I asked him, then he tell me that he gave them  choice
    between pay Jizya and war, and it turns out that they chose to pay Jizya. “(Ahmad: 1582)
  2. From [‘Abdullah bin Ka’ab], Kaab’s guide (when he was blind) from his  son, he said I heard [Ka’ab ibn Malik] when he did not participating the war with the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam (in Tabuk war). And it is not Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam to fight unless he keep it secret from others “. (Bukhariy: 2728)
  3. From [Ibn Isham] from [his father] he was one of the Prophet Shallallahu’alaihiwasallam’s pal (sahaba) narrated: Prophet Shallallahu’alaihiwasallam when sending his troop to the war said: “If you see a mosque or hear the sound of athan echoed then you should not kill anyone.” (Ahmad: 15 156)
  4. From [Abdurrahman ibn Ka’b ibn Malik] from [his father], that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam when he was about going to a battle he hide his desination to his troop, and he said: “War is deception.” (Abu Dawud: 2267) The persons narrated are strong and trustworthy
  5. From [Al Aswad ibn Sari ‘] Prophet Shallallahu’alaihiwasallam sent a unit to Hunain War, then they fight against the idolaters and they overdo when killing, down to the women and children.When they arrived, the Prophet Shallallahu’alaihiwasallam said: “What makes you kill the women and children?. They said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, they are just children of the polytheists. (the Prophet Shallallahu’alaihiwasallam) said:” Is not it your chosen people  actually also the son of idolaters? For God sake it is not every soul is born except on their sanctity, until his tongue say differently. “(Ahmad: 15 036)
  6. From [Sulaiman bin Buraidah] from [his father] he said: When the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam appoint someone to be a leader of the expedition, he bequeath him specifically for pious to Allah and do good to those Muslims who are with him. He said: “He fought with the name of God, and in the way of Allah. Fight those disbelievers in Allah, who foght you and do not retreat, do not steal the spoils of war, do not chop up and do not kill children.” (Darimiy: 2332)
  7. From [Jaber] said: we do not promise Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam to die, however we promise him not to flee from war. (Nasa’i 4088)
  8. From [Abu Ayyub] said: Messenger of Allah sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa salam said: “Whoever worship only for Allah without associating Him with anything, establish prayer, pay the obligatory zakat, fasting Ramadan and stay away from major sins, he gained heaven or go to heaven.” Abu Ayyub said to him: “What is major sin? Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa salam said: “Associating Allah with something else, kill a Muslim and fled during the war.” (Ahmad: 22 407)
  9. From [Buraidah] said: The Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam said: “You should hasten the prayer during Ghaim war for whoever left the’ Asr prayer, he wipe his notes” (Ahmad: 21 977)
  10. From [Abdurrahman ibn Abu Sa’eed al Khudri] from [his father] he said: “We are prevented from conducting prayers in time on the Khandaq war  until maghrib time elapsed , approaching mid-night until after the war, and this as His word: “And God keep believers from the war. And Allah is ever Strong, Mighty. “He said: Then the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam commanded Bilal to call to prayer dzuhur prayer, then he perform his prayers as perfect as he can as implement in a timely way. After that he ordered Bilal to pray’ Asr prayer, then he perform ‘Asr prayers as he do in the time. After that he ordered Bilal maghrib prayer call to prayer, then he perform like that. ” He said: “And all that happens before  khauf prayer was enacted,” then pray while you are walking or driving. “(Ahmad: 11 039)
  11. From [Ibn ‘Abbas] he said: “God has spoken through the prophet’tounge that the prayer is obligated, in a state settled four cycles, two cycles when travelling, and one cycle in a state fear (of war)” (Nasa ‘i: 1514)
  12. From [Ibn Umar radliallahu ‘anhuma] said:’ I’ve ever joined the war together with the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam to Najed, when we   facing the enemy, we were pray while facing toward the enemy. “(Bukhariy: 3819)
  13. From [Jaber] said: The Prophet Shallallahu’alaihiwasallam said: “bury them along with the blood of their blood.”Namely those who are slain in the battle of Uhud: “And do not bathed them.” (Bukhariy: 1260)
  14. From [Aisha], that the Prophet Shallallahu’alaihiwasallam ordered to cut the bells found in the neck of the camels in times of the war of Badar . “(Ahmad: 24 011)
  15. From [‘Iyas bin Salamah] of [His father] said, I had ever traveled with Abu Bakr in the war against Hawazin then I get the loot in the form of a woman, then the Messenger of Allah asked for her and he Shallallahu’alaihiwasallam send them to Makkah and used to redeem some Muslim prisoners.(Ahmad: 15 908)
  16. From [Yazid ibn Hurmuz] that Najdah Al Haruri wrote a letter to [Ibn Abbas] and asked: “Did the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam has ever fought and bringing women on it? And did he give part to them?” Ibn Abbas then write a reply to him, “you write a letter to me and ask ‘Did the Prophet sallallaahu’ alaihi wasallam going to war by bringing the women? He went a war with  women, so they could treat people who are sick. They are also given the wages of ghanimah . (Tirmithi: 1477)
  17. From [Mu’adh ibn Jabal] from the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam, he said: “There are  two kind of wars, as for the peoples who expect the face of God and obey the leaders and spend their wealth of valuable and avoid damage hence entirely of their sleep and awake is the reward, while for peoples who fight to be seen and heard and disobeyed the leaders and make mischief in the land then surely he is not back with any benefit. ” (Nasa’i: 4124)
  18. From [Anas ibn Malik]; Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam said to Aktsam bin Al Jaun Al Khuza’i: “O Aktsam, and fight together not with your people then your behavior will be good, and you shall glorify your friends, O Aktsam, the most best of your friends are four person, the best of detachment consisting of four hundred people, the best army consist of four thousand people, occasionally twelve thousand troops (which is not small) can not be beaten. ” (Ibn Majah: 2817)
  19. From [Mu’adh ibn Sahl ibn Anas al-Juhani] from [His father] said, we stopped at Sinan in the Roman fort, with Abdullah bin Abdul Malik, then narrow those refugee camps that exist, and they also do blockade  the road.Mu’adh continue to protest ‘O people, we has ever fought with the Prophet Shallallahu’alaihiwasallam in this and that war, then people were blockading roads that exist, then the Prophet sent an anouncer  to shout,’ Anyone who narrow the refugee camps or blockading the road, then he had no jihad with him.(Ahmad: 15 094)
  20. From [Abu Musa] that a Bedouin came to the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam and said: behold there is a man who fought for so-called, and fought for praise and fought to get the booty of war and battle to seek for a position. Then the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam said: “Those who fought for the sahada to be the highest word then he is in the way of Allah’ Azza wajalla.” (Abu Dawud: 2156)
  21. From [Hanzhalah] a writer, he said: “We have fought alongside the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam, we suddenly come across a woman who was killed and had surrounded,  then they give way to the Prophet. The Prophet sallallaahu’ alaihi wasallam said: ‘This women  did not join the war against them. ” … He says, ‘Thou shalt not kill the children and the workers work (handyman). (Ibn Majah: 2832)
  22. From [Ibn Abbas], he said; Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam when sending his troops  he said: “Go  with the name of Allah, you fight against those who disbelieve in Allah, do not betray the agreement, do not cheat (taking the spoils of war prior to distribution), do not destroy human body, do not killing children and the people who inhabit the places of worship. ” (Ahmad: 2592)
Posted in Fiqh, Fiqh Aam | Tagged ,

WAR PRINCIPLES IN ISLAM (1)

Discussion about war, especially when involving hadiths will be long and tedious. We try to compact by (only) cite 7 verses of the Quran that constitue the principles of war in Islam

1. The war is obliged due to self defence when moslemeen are attacked first by other parties. Examples of these are Palestinese and Moslem Ambonese:

  • And fight in the way of Allah those who fight you, but do notexceed the limits. Trully Allah likes not the transgressors (Albaqara 2:190)
  • And fight them until there is no more persecution (fitnah), and (all and every kind of) worship is for Allah (alone). But if they cease, let there be no transgression except against the opressors (AlBaqara 2:193).

2. War is obliged to the stronger Islamic Country when infidel countries are attacking other weaker Islamic countries and the Muslims and they can not protecting themself from the invasion. This is what the Prophet (peace be upon him) done when attacking the Roman and Persian, as they disrupt and conquer the muslims countries that adjacent with them

  • And fight them until there is no more persecution (fitnah) [1] and worship should be only for Allah. But if they desist, certainly Allah is All-Seer of what they do (Al-Anfal 8:39)

     [1] harassment against Muslims and Islam

3. War is obliged because the infidel countries are undermined the peace agreement held between them and the Muslims, except in the months of illegitimated. This happens when in any of those two cases above (1) and (2) , they, the infidel league asked for peace treaty, that Allah in the Quran require the muslims to accept such treaty, but after that they broke the agreement by attacking the muslims, such as practiced by Israel in 1973 on the war of Yonkipur up until now.

  • But if they violate their oaths after their covenant, and attack your releigion with disapproval and criticism then fight (you) the leaders of disbelief –surely their oaths are nothing – so that the may desist (from their evil actions) (at-Tawba 9:12)
  • Verily,the nmber of months with Allah is twelve months, so was it ordained by Allah on the day when He created the heavens and the earth; on them four are sacred. That is the right religion,so wrong not yourselves therein, and fight agaist the polytheists collectively, as they fight against you collectively. But know that Allah is with those who are pious (at-Tawba 9:36)
  • Then when the sacred months have passed, then kill the idolater wherever you find them and capture them and besiege them, and prepare for them each and every ambush. But if they repent and perform the prayer and give zakah (pay the poor in islamicway), then leave their way free. Surely Alah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful (at-Tawba 9:5)

4. War is obliged in general to the heathen for their submission and make a peace agreement with Islamic countries, or become Muslims. This is because they will always find ways to attack and harm the Muslims when they are not within the power of the Muslims or not to make a submission agreement. Whenever the infidel countries always make peace and never attacking any moslem countries, tthen there would be no such  obligation

  • Fight against those who (1) believe not in Allah, (2) nor in the Last Day, (3) nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger (4) and those who acknowedge not th religion of truth (Islam) among the People of the Scripture, until they pay the Jizyah (tax protection) with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued (at-Tawba 9:29)
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Abortion in the view of Islam

Abortion: In medicine, an abortion is the premature exit of the products of conception (the fetus, fetal membranes, and placenta) from the uterus. It is the loss of a pregnancy and does not refer to why that pregnancy was lost. (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=2091)

Is abortion allowed by Islam? This depend on whether abortion can be equated to murder. No doubt that murder is definitely prohibited by Islam as stated by Quran and Hadits. Consider this:

And do not kill anyone which Allah has forbidden,except for a just cause. And whoever is killed (intentionally with hostility and oppression and not by mistake), We (Allah) have given his heir the authority (to demand Qisash- law of equality in punishment- or to forgive, or to take Diya – blood money – ). (al-Israa’ 17:33)

What is murder then? Murder is defined by: “It refers to the killing or death of a person by another sane person unlawfully and proved to be under no authority to kill or with the intent of killing the other because of malice or revenge” (http://www.legalexplanations.com/definitions/murder.htm )

Is this definition confirm to what Islam meant by murder? In arabic term, murder by intention is said by “qatlu al-‘amd”. Ethimologically it is composed by two words: al-qatlu and al-amd. Qatlu means any actions that lead to the removal of life [1] whereas the word al-amd means intentionally [2]. Thus what is meant with murder by intention is someone that legally have been grownup (mukallaf) intentionally and by plann act to remove others’ life that his life is protected by sharia, with any means that normally could be used to kill [3]

[1] Al-Mausu’ah al-Fiqhiyah: 32/321. [2] Ibid: 30/307. [3] see: Tuhfat al-Labib fi Syarhi at-Taqrib hlm. 374, and al-Mulakhash al-Fiqh: 2/465.

By understanding the definition of murder that is prohibited by Islam, one can see whether abortion contain things that are mentioned in the definition which are:

  1. Living removal
  2. With intention

The condition of “with intention” is fulfilled in an abortion act. But the condition of “Living removal” is highly conditioned by the state of the fetus. The fetus according to science can be detected to move about week 21 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fetus#cite_noteJAMA-11) indicating it already having life. But according to hadith, a fetus is already given life by Allah at the week 17:

Narrated by Abdullah that the prophet said: indeed the human being is beginning to be created in mother’s whomb for forty days (when it fertilized), then within another forty days it become ‘alaqah (zygote), and within another forty days it become mudhghah (leech like things), and within another forty days Allah send an angel that is orderred to write four things, its destiny, its sustenance, its death, and its life then He give it life by breathing his soul onto it (Muslim 4781).

Thus abortion after the day of 120 after fertilization can be considerred as murder, and not when it doing before. From this point of view, the abortion, when there are medical needs, is allowed before the day of 120 after conception.

The Hanafian school permitted abortion when the age of the fetus is before 120 days. The great Hanafi Faqeeh Ibn Abidin States in his Radd al-Muhtar: “The soul enters the foutus at one hundred & twenty days (4 months), as established by the Hadith” (Radd al-Muhtar, 1/202)

The Maliki view abortion is not allowed after the implantation has taken place. Most of the Maliki jurists (legal scholars) described abortion as completely forbidden. In their view, when the semen settles in the womb, it is expected to develop into a living baby and it should not be disturbed by anyone. According to Ibn Jawziyyah, when the womb has retained the semen, it is not permitted for the husband and wife, or one of them or the master of the slave-wife, to induce an abortion. After ensoulment, however, abortion is prohibited absolutely and is akin to murder.

The Syafi’i scholar (dominant in Southeast Asia, southern Arabia, parts of East Africa) allows abortions to be performed up to day 120. While the Hanbali school (predominant in Saudi Arabia and United Arabic Emirates) abortions are principally prohibited from day 40 onward.

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Dua when you feel lonely and depressed

أَعُوذُ بِكَلِمَاتِ اللهِ التَّامَّاتِ مِنْ غَضَبِهِ وَعِقَابِهِ، وَشَرِّ عِبَادِهِ، وَمِنْ هَمَزَاتِ الشَّيَاطِينِ وَأَنْ يَحْضُرُونِ

‘A’oothu bikalimaatil-laahit-taammaati min ghadhabihi wa ‘iqaabihi, wa sharri ‘ibaadihi, wa min hamazaatish-shayaateeni wa ‘an yahdhuroon’

I seek refuge in the Perfect Words of Allah from His anger and His punishment, from the evil of His slaves and from the taunts of devils and from their presence

Reference: Abu Dawud 4/12. See also Al-Albani, Sahih At- Tirmithi 3/171

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